新建建筑的动态能效政策比较

开发高要求、动态建筑节能规范和一揽子政策的主要组成要素是什么?试着使用政策比较工具,找一找组成要素以帮助所在地区的建筑物向零能耗发展。

政策比较工具可用于比较全球最佳建筑(住宅和商用)节能政策。根据由国际建筑节能专家制定的15个衡量标准 ,该工具对25个最新建筑节能规范进行回顾、简评。

如何使用?

每个图标代表一个建筑规范。图标的每个部分代表15个评估建筑规范 的衡量标准中的一个。

选择和取消你感兴趣的衡量标准。

每个部分的大小反映对该衡量标准得分的多少。鼠标停留在每个图标上方可以看到对某建筑节能规范所有衡量标准的总评分。

你可以根据字母或得分将建筑节能规范进行排序。

为何使用建筑能源性能规范的比较工具?

比较建筑节能规范可以帮助政策决策者更好地了解动态建筑规范的机理。相互之间的比较可帮助了解哪些建筑规范在哪些领域较为先进,学习先进经验可帮助其他规范进一步提高。通过了解最佳案例中执行机构如何设计和推行建筑规范和有关的一揽子支持计划,政策决策者可参考这些信息来实施和评估自已所在区域的建筑规范,提高未来动态政策的设计。

GBPN组织国际建筑节能专家参加建筑节能讨论。他们得出的一致结论是,建筑节能最佳实践和支持项目的主要构成要素应包括:整体分析方式、定时更新和拥有零能耗目标的动态开发过程、强有力的推行系统和支持建筑节能规范的有关政策、技术因素, 和总体建筑的能耗性能。根据以上五个主要因素,GBPN开发了一整套详细的衡量标准,以对各建筑节能规范和支持政策的进行严格评估。

欲求更多信息,请查阅GBPN报告“新建建筑节能政策的比较分析”2013年二月出版。.

整体分析方法

This theme has three criteria that assess the holistic nature of building codes including their total performance with regard to end use, primary energy and GHG emissions.The assessments consider whether a performance-based approach has been adopted, taking into consideration how much energy is included and whether integrated or bioclimatic designs are the basis for the energy efficiency code. 

建筑节能规范的整体性质,包括整体的能源绩效。

  • 整体绩效型手段

    This criterion seeks to determine whether the code has adopted a holistic understanding of buildings in the sense that the main requests of the building code are based on total energy performance. This can either be based on a performance calculation or a figure based on metered consumption. The energy performance should include the balance and integration between different elements in the building and the technical system. The code will be assessed in order to determine whether the performance allows and stimulates integrated design or bioclimatic design principles adapted to the actual climate and whether it gives priority to passive design of buildings. The use of energy performance values should be mandatory.

    This criterion is assessed based on the following questions:

    • Does the code set an overall performance frame for buildings (kWh/m2 per year)?
    • Does the code take primary energy use, GHG emissions or peak loads into account?
    • Does the calculation take passive heating, passice cooling, natural ventilation, natural light and shading or other natural elements into account?
    • Does the code actively encourage integrated or bioclimatic design of buildings?
    • Does the code have a clear definition of building performance?

    根据总能源绩效确定建筑节能规范方面的主要要求。

  • 包括所有能源

    This criterion assesses the energy uses included in the energy performance assessment of buildings as outlined by each code. The assessment includes energy used for heating and cooling, for lighting and for installed equipment and appliances. It will also assess on delivered or final as well as primary energy. Part of the assessment will focus specifically on lighting, dehumidification, hot water, elevators, pumps, transformers and appliances.

    This criterion will be assesed using the following sub-criterion:

    • Do the requirements include most of the energy consumption in a building (i.e. heating, cooling, ventilation and dehumidification)?
    • Does the performance include domestic hot water?
    • Does the code include lighting requirements?
    • Does the code include energy consumption such as elevators, appliances, pumps and fans?
    • Does the code include conversion and transportation losses?

  • 能源效率和可再生能源

    This point assess whether the building code encourages or mandates bioclimatic design and/or integrated design to optimise the use of passive energy. The focus will be to firstly reduce energy use and then to ensure that energy requirements are met by indirect/passive energy. The majority of this passive energy should be supplied by local active renewable sources with the remainder supplied as efficiently as possible. The assessment will also take into consideration use of overall lifecycle principles in design and implementation.

    The following questions are designed to assist the above assessment:

    • Does the code significantly reduce energy needs for instance by setting requirements for the buildings efficiency and renewable energy?
    • Does the code require/strongly encourage efficient use of passive heating and passive cooling?
    • Does the code require/strongly encourage natural ventilation?
    • Does the code require/encourage daylight use?
    • Does the code require/encourage shading?
    • Does the code require/encourage a reduction for energy provided for renewable energy systems?
    • Does the code include life cycle assessment?

     

     

动态流程

This theme has 3 criteria that assess the dynamic elements of the code in terms of regular updates. It assess past revisions of the code as well as future targets and zero energy goals. The scoring will further assess how codes encourage the implementation of levels beyond code, driving innovation and increasing efficiency of building beyond the bare minimum. 

  • 零能耗目标

    This criterion assesses whether a realistic target for having zero energy buildings as standard by a certain date has been set and whether an appropriate roadmap for achieveing this has been outlined. The assessment will also consider how much of the consumption is included in this definition. A target of this type is often set outside the code itself and should be adopted and strongly mandated. This assessment will have regard to such supporting regulations or agreements. 

    The following sub-criterion will be considered:

    • Has the path to ZEB performance/compliance been clearly set out for the future?
    • Are there binding targets based on a roadmap that are achieveable, realistic and relevant to the country/region and state of the market? Are there aspirational targets for revisions towards zero energy?
    • How quickly will a target for reaching net zero energy buildings be achieved (for instance by 2020 or 2030 been set)? Is this realistic given the actual state?
    • Are all end uses included in this target?

     

  • 修订周期

    This criterion seeks to assess whether there is a clear and well documented process for ensuring regular updates of the energy requirements in building code. The clearer this process is mandated the better. It is also an advantage if goals or targets have been clearly defined as part of the process., such as aspirational targets. The code will be further assessed based on how the process involves and informs important stakeholders at an early state, as this will be critical to the use and acceptance of codes.

    The following sub-criterion will support the assessment:

    • Does the code have regular and frequest revision cycles (max 3-5 years)? Has this process been followed in the past?
    • Are key stakeholders involved in the development of new requirements? Is the development of the code followed by training activities?
    • Does the code adoption take life cycle assessment into account? Are the requirements  supporting a dynamic and ambitious development of codes by including economic rational and other benefits?
    • Does the code or legislation have aspirational targets for the future revisions that have already been defined? Are targets clearly set out and well defined at least 2-3 years in advance?

     

  • 最低标准以上

实施

  • 强制实施标准

  • 认证

  • 政策包

技术要求

  • 建筑围护结构

  • 技术系统

  • 可再生能源系统

整体性能

  • 现场能源

  • 一次能源

  • 温室气体的排放

政策比较工具的用途

政策比较工具是一个交互式工具。它可以帮助你比较新建建筑(住宅和商用)的动态能效政策。根据国际建筑节能专家制定的15个衡量标准,该工具对25个最新的建筑节能规范进行回顾、简评。

  • 选择和取消在交互式比较工具中的衡量标准,可确定每个建筑节能规范中的主要因素
  • 获取每个建筑节能规范的详细信息
  • 产生比较数据(比如每个建筑节能规范的U值)的图表

 

所有的数据可以在HTML、PDF和机器可读原始数据(CSV)格式中使用和重复使用。

请阅读GBPN报告: "新建建筑能效政策的比较分析 "