China Hot S/Warm W

Summary

China’s HSWW standard was developed especially for the warmest southern regions of China in 2003. Mandatory requirements are set relevant to the two climate zones (North and south), with provisions outlined for thermal envelope components and energy efficiency requirements for heating, cooling, hot water and plumbing systems. The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.

The HSWW standard was the first of its type in China, with the aim being to reduce annual energy consumption of HVAC systems by 50%. Thus the standard includes dynamic aspects to improve energy efficiency such as natural ventilation, shading and passive cooling considerations including specific window to wall ratios according to the orientation of a building, economic analysis of heating and cooling systems and renewable energy and new technology encouragement.

General Information

Full Title of Code

Design Standard for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings in the Hot Summer and Warm Winter Zones

Year of Adoption

2003

Date of Enforcement

Wednesday, October 1, 2003

Authority in Charge

Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China, Authorized by the Institute of Standards and Norms of the Ministry of Construction

Link

http://www.codeofchina.com/

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/buildings/codes/China

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

China

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Cooling Based
  • Warm and Humid
  • The hot summer and warm winter zone is divided into the South and North Areas in the Standard. The energy efficiency design of building in North Area shall mainly focus on the summer cooling in consideration of the winter heating meanwhile; and that in the South Area shall consider the summer cooling other than the winter heating.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    Regional Climate Code.
  • Prescriptive Codes:
    The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.
  • Energy Declaration:
    Partially, not for all new buildings. It is dependent on local governmental policies.
  • Model / reference Building:
    The energy efficiency design of residential buildings may adopt the "custom budget method” for comprehensive evaluation in comparison with a reference building.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    Not an overall performance frame, however, by adopting rational energy conservation building design and taking energy conservation measures for reinforcing the thermal-barrier and insulation performances of the building enclosure and improving the energy efficiency ratio of cooling and heating equipment, based on the premise of an identical indoor thermal environment, the total annual cooling and heating energy consumption shall be decreased by 50% in comparison with no energy conservation measures.
  • Final Energy:
    Partially, the custom budget method is used during the design stage. The energy used in the simulation is based on site energy.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Ventilation
  • Thermal bridging
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Heat recovery
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    If conditions permit, the residential area should adopt the winter central heating by thermal power plant, summer absorption concentrated-cooling technology, or small-sized (mini-type) gas turbine-absorption concentrated-cooling/heating technology, or ice-storage concentrated-cooling technology. If conditions permit, cooling and heating technologies through renewable energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy and ocean energy should be adopted in the residential building.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Third party inspection

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Fine
  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Residential Buildings - North Area

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)450--
CDD (°C)2285--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.5Roof21
Wall0.7Wall22
Floor-Floor2-
Window2Window22.5
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    When designing the residential building ventilation, the ventilating mechanical equipment should select the energy-saving equipment and products in compliance with those specified in the current national standards. The residential building ventilation design shall handle the indoor air distribution appropriately so as to improve the ventilation efficiency.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings - South Area

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)450--
CDD (°C)2285--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.5Roof21
Wall0.7Wall22
Floor-Floor2-
Window-Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    When designing the residential building ventilation, the ventilating mechanical equipment should select the energy-saving equipment and products in compliance with those specified in the current national standards. The residential building ventilation design shall handle the indoor air distribution appropriately so as to improve the ventilation efficiency.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

Zero Energy Targets:

  • Definition of nZEB/ZEB/Plus Energy etc:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.
  • All end uses are not included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    China is now focused on the compliance of building energy efficiency for new buildings, rather than ZEB.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    0
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2003
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      0
    • Absolute target:
      0
    • Comments:
      N/A

Supporting Measures

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

During the development of building energy codes, invited building energy experts are heavily involved in the development of building energy codes/standards. They have direct experiences of using building energy codes, and/or communicate directly with other key stakeholders who practice building energy codes. Some of these experts also have contact with relevant national policy decision makers, which help build communication between policy development and code development.

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

Training is provided in some jurisdictions.