China Public

Summary

China’s ‘public buildings’ standard was developed in 2005 to improve the energy efficiency of non-residential buildings, including commercial, educational and governmental buildings. Mandatory and voluntary energy performance criteria are outlined addressing thermal envelope components and energy efficiency requirements for heating, cooling, hot water and plumbing systems. The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.

The first energy-efficiency standard for non-residential buildings in China was the 1993 Energy Conservation Design Standard for Building Envelope and Air Conditioning in Tourist Hotels. The standard was updated and the scope widened to include all public buildings 2005, with the aim been to reduce annual energy consumption by 50% relevant to a typical 1980’s building. The current standard includes initiatives to improve energy efficiency such natural ventilation and solar shading considerations, variable speed drive and control requirements for ventilation systems, efficiency and control requirements for heating and cooling systems and mandated hot water use for district heating. 

General Information

Full Title of Code

Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings - GB 50189-2005

Year of Adoption

2005

Date of Enforcement

Friday, July 1, 2005

Authority in Charge

Issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China.

Link

http://codeofchina.com/gb/architectural/43.html

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://energycodesocean.org/search/apachesolr_search/china

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

China

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based
  • Mixed
  • This code covers 5 official Chinese climate zones. These include based, combined climate, moderate climate and cooling based.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    National Code.
  • Prescriptive Codes:
    The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.
  • Model / reference Building:
    In addition to the prescriptive requirements above, the public building standard contain performance options whereby a building is deemed to meet the standard so long as its calculated building energy use is below that of a reference building. This “custom budget” approach is similar to that used in US standards such as ASHRAE 90.1, and differs from the “fixed budget” approach used in several other Asian countries.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Final Energy:
    The custom budget method is used during the design stage. The energy used in the simulation is based on site energy.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Dehumidification
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    Partially, China encourages the utilization of renewable and new technologies to improve building energy efficiency. One of objectives of building energy codes is to make sure new buildings meet the minimum building energy performance.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Third party inspection
  • Central enforcement

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Inspection of boilers

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Fine
  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Values for New Buildings

All Buildings - Hot Summer Cold Winter Region

GBPN Climate Classification

Mixed

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)1559--
CDD (°C)1389--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.7Roof2-
Wall1Wall2-
Floor1Floor2-
Window2.5Window24.7
Others3--
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

All Buildings - Severe Cold Zone B

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2195--
CDD (°C)1281--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.35Roof20.45
Wall0.45Wall20.55
Floor0.45Floor20.5
Window1.5Window23.2
Others2.6--
Overall U-Value---

Heat transfer coefficients depends on the profile coefficient.

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

All Buildings - Cold Region

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2195--
CDD (°C)1281--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.45Roof20.55
Wall0.5Wall20.6
Floor0.5Floor20.6
Window1.8Window23.5
Others2.7--
Overall U-Value---

Heat transfer coefficients depends on the profile coefficient.

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

All Buildings - Hot-summer-hot-winter region

GBPN Climate Classification

Mixed

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2195--
CDD (°C)1281--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.9Roof2-
Wall1.5Wall2-
Floor1.5Floor2-
Window3Window26.5
Others3.5--
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

All Buildings - Severe Cold Zone A

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2195--
CDD (°C)1281--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.3Roof20.35
Wall0.4Wall20.45
Floor0.4Floor20.6
Window1.5Window23
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

Zero Energy Targets:

  • Definition of nZEB/ZEB/Plus Energy etc:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.
  • All end uses are not included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    China is now focused on the compliance of building energy efficiency for new buildings, rather than ZEB.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.
  • Special Requirements for public buildings:
    The State Council issued the Regulations on Energy Conservation in Civil Buildings, developed by MOHURD, in October 2008. This was a recent governmental effort to promote building energy efficiency in residential and public buildings.

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    0
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2005
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2005
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

Supporting Measures

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

During the development of building energy codes, invited building energy experts are heavily involved in the development of building energy codes/standards. They have direct experiences of using building energy codes, and/or communicate directly with other key stakeholders who practice building energy codes. Some of these experts also have contact with relevant national policy decision makers, which help build communication between policy development and code development.