China Severe Cold

Summary

China’s ‘heating zones’ standard was developed especially for the coldest regions of China, with requirements varying according to the size and location of the building within the 5 sub climates zones outlined within the standard. Mandatory energy performance criteria (with some voluntary elements) are outlined for residential buildings, addressing thermal envelope components and energy efficiency requirements for heating, cooling, hot water and plumbing systems. The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.

The first energy efficiency standard for residential buildings in China was implemented in 1986 for heating zones, with the standard being updated in 1995 and again in 2010. The current standard includes initiatives to further improve energy efficiency such as low u-values for severe cold zones, minimum design efficiencies for boilers (electric boilers heavily discouraged), renewable energy systems are encouraged, natural ventilation requirements and heating and cooling systems must be designed considering technical economical analysis. 

General Information

Full Title of Code

Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Zones.

Year of Adoption

2010

Date of Enforcement

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Authority in Charge

Issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China.

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://energycodesocean.org/search/apachesolr_search/china

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

China

Code set at:

Regional/States Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
      • 41.88 EUI (kWh/m2) China average, not a performance value

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based
  • Heating based, code include specific climate data to be used when calculating performance. According to the range of different heating degree day (HDD18) and cooling degree day (CDD 26), the severe cold and cold zones can be divided into 5 climate sub-zones.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    The building energy standards developed by the MOC are model energy codes, analogous to the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) or ASHRAE 90.1 in the United States, with their actual enforcement relegated to the local governments or Construction Commissions.
  • Prescriptive Codes:
    The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.
  • Model / reference Building:
    The standard allows a simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance. Whereby a building is deemed to meet the standard so long as its calculated building energy use is below that of a reference building. This “custom budget” approach is similar to that used in US standards such as ASHRAE 90.1, and differs from the “fixed budget” approach used in several other Asian countries.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Final Energy:
    Partially, the custom budget method is used during the design stage. The energy used in the simulation is based on site energy.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Heat recovery
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    Partially, renewable energies shall be used actively if necessary for energy efficient design of HVAC systems, not mandatory.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Third party inspection

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Fine
  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more Climate Zone A

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.45Roof2-
Wall0.7Wall2-
Floor0.6Floor2-
Window3.1Window22.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Yes
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more - Climate Zone Severe Cold A.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.25Roof2-
Wall0.5Wall2-
Floor0.4Floor2-
Window2.5Window21.8
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 3 floors or less - Climate Zone Severe Cold B

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.25Roof2-
Wall0.3Wall2-
Floor0.3Floor2-
Window2Window21.5
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more - Climate Zone Severe Cold B.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.3Roof2-
Wall0.55Wall2-
Floor0.45Floor2-
Window2.5Window21.8
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 3 floors or less - Climate Zone Severe Cold C.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.3Roof2-
Wall0.35Wall2-
Floor0.35Floor2-
Window2Window21.5
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more - Climate Zone Severe Cold C

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.4Roof2-
Wall0.6Wall2-
Floor0.5Floor2-
Window2.5Window21.8
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 3 floors or less - Climate Zone Cold A

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.35Roof2-
Wall0.45Wall2-
Floor0.45Floor2-
Window2.8Window21.8
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more - Climate Zone Cold A

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.45Roof2-
Wall0.7Wall2-
Floor0.6Floor2-
Window3.1Window22.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 3 floors or less - Climate Zone Cold B

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.35Roof2-
Wall0.45Wall2-
Floor0.45Floor2-
Window2.8Window21.8
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 9 floors or more - Climate Zone Cold B

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.45Roof2-
Wall0.7Wall2-
Floor0.6Floor2-
Window3.1Window22.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Residential Buildings: 3 Floors or less - Climate Zone Severe Cold A

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2967--
CDD (°C)989--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.2Roof2-
Wall0.25Wall2-
Floor0.3Floor2-
Window2Window21.5
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Yes
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    China has not established an updating system to regularly review and update its codes.
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • All end uses are not included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    China is now focused on the compliance of building energy efficiency for new buildings, rather than ZEB.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.

Number of Earlier Codes

0

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    0
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2008
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    The 1986 and 1995 versions required residential buildings to be approximately 30% and 50% more efficient than residential buildings that were built in the early 1980s. In November 2008, a revised version was submitted for review, which targets a 65% improvement in energy efficiency compared to buildings built in the early 1980s (CABR 2008).
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

Supporting Measures

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

During the development of building energy codes, invited building energy experts are heavily involved in the development of building energy codes/standards. They have direct experiences of using building energy codes, and/or communicate directly with other key stakeholders who practice building energy codes. Some of these experts also have contact with relevant national policy decision makers, which help build communication between policy development and code development.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

Partially, building energy labelling has been discussed in recent years, The level of interest in building energy labeling is clearly rising, but the efforts so far are still exploratory, with no meaningful impact yet on the construction industry or marketplace.

Supporting Certification Schemes

Green Building Rating Systems, Green Olympic Building Assessment System, Evaluation Standard for Green Building.