England & Wales

Summary

The L1A and L2A are mandatory performance-based codes that require an energy frame calculation to establish that the Design Emissions Rate (DER) does not exceed the Target Emissions Rate (TER) - measured in kg CO2 for a notional building of the same shape and size. The code addresses thermal envelope requirements and energy-using systems within the calculation, including, HVAC, hot water, lighting, bioclimatic design and renewable energy.

England and Wales have had prescriptive energy efficiency requirements for buildings since 1976.  In 2005, following the implementation of the 2002 EPBD, the first performance-based code was introduced. The 2010 code and related national policies have been further strengthened to reflect the provisions of the EPBD recast. These include, mandatory (reference building) simulation calculation, air-tightness testing, thermal bridging and renewable energy requirements, pre-occupancy commissioning and a national target for all new homes to zero carbon by 2016.

General Information

Full Title of Code

The Building Regulations 2010 Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings (L1A) and in new buildings other than dwellings (L2A)

Year of Adoption

2010

Date of Enforcement

Friday, October 1, 2010

Authority in Charge

Department for Communities and Local Government. The implementation of the EPBD in England and Wales is the responsibility of the Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG).

Link

http://www.planningportal.gov.uk

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://www.communities.gov.uk

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

England & Wales

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
      • For multiple dwelling buildings, compliance is achieved if, every individual dwelling has a DER that is no greater than its corresponding TER or the average DER is no greater than the average TER.
  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    National Code.
  • Performance Codes for Refurbishments:
    Partially for Dwellings and Non-dwellings.
  • Performance Codes for New Builds:
    The L1A and L2A are mandatory performance-based codes that require an energy frame calculation to establish that the Design Emissions Rate (DER) does not exceed the Target Emissions Rate (TER) - measured in kg CO2 for a notional building of the same shape and size.
  • Energy Declaration:
    Display Energy Certificates (DECs) are produced by public authorities and institutions providing public services to large numbers of persons where they occupy buildings with floor areas greater than 1,000 m2. Commercial Energy Performance Certificate must be submitted to building control before a completion certificate can be issued.
  • Model / reference Building:
    The L1A and L2A are mandatory performance-based codes that require an energy frame calculation to establish that the Design Emissions Rate (DER) does not exceed the Target Emissions Rate (TER) measured in kg CO2 for a notional building of the same shape and size.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    The calculated rate of CO2 emissions from the dwelling or non-dwelling must not be greater than the TER. The code includes particular requirements surrounding calculation procedures for different fuel types and systems.
  • Primary Energy:
    Partially - Co2 emissions are calculated.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Dehumidification
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Technical installations
  • Lighting
  • Appliances
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    Provided the dwelling satisfies the limits on design flexibility as set out in Criterion 2, the compliance procedure allows the designer full flexibility to achieve the TER utilising fabric and system measures and the integration of low and zero carbon (LZC) technologies in whatever mix is appropriate to the scheme. The approved compliance tools include appropriate algorithms that enable the designer to assess the role LZC technologies.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Accreditation of applicants
  • Post Occupancy control

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Energy Performance Certificate support BC
  • Positive labeling for building beyond the minimum BC level
  • Energy Offsets/Green Certificates
    • Number of certified buildings:
      7161844
  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • None

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Airtightness testing required prior to compliance
  • Mandatory Computer Modeling
  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2938--
CDD (°C)60--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.2Roof2-
Wall0.3Wall2-
Floor0.25Floor2-
Window2Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---

The above u-values are the worst acceptable standards for fabric properties. The stated value represents the area-weighted average value for all elements of that type. U-values shall be calculated using the methods and conventions set out in BR 44311, and should be based on the whole element or unit (e.g. in the case of a window, the combined performance of the glazing and the frame).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements.
  • Value for airtightness:
    10 m3/(h.m2) at 50 Pa.
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2938--
CDD (°C)60--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.15Roof2-
Wall0.23Wall2-
Floor0.2Floor2-
Window1.5Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---

The above u-values are the worst acceptable standards for fabric properties. The stated value represents the area-weighted average value for all elements of that type. U-values shall be calculated using the methods and conventions set out in BR 44311, and should be based on the whole element or unit (e.g. in the case of a window, the combined performance of the glazing and the frame).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    5.0 m3/h.m2 at 50 Pa
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    2015
    2015, 2018, 2020
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • Definition of nZEB/ZEB/Plus Energy etc:
    The definition of zero carbon is not yet finalised.
  • All end uses are not included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    Not known at this stage.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    In 2006, the Government declared its ambition of “a target for all new homes to be zero carbon within a decade”. A high level “2016 Taskforce” was set up by Government, together with a “Zero Carbon Hub4” to support and report to the Taskforce.

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    Dwellings EPC provides a rating of the overall energy efficiency of the building on a scale from A to G. Non Dwelling EPC Content - Energy performance is shown as a single CO2 based index, on a scale of A to G and an asset rating calculation.
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2015
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2009
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      70
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Residential:
    The “built performance” emissions from new homes should not exceed: 10 kg CO2(eq) /m2/year for detached houses; 11 kg CO2(eq) /m2/year for other houses; 14 kg CO2(eq) /m2/year for low rise apartment blocks.

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

Dwellings constructed to achieve net carbon emissions of zero over the year are exempt from stamp duty tax. Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) have been introduced from April 2010 for electricity generated on site from small-scale renewable electricity generating systems (<5MWe), see link at left. The Government has indicated that a similar Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) will be introduced from June 2011.

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

Major publicity campaigns have taken place in all parts of the UK through a range of media: TV, press, radio, the internet and guidance documentation for householders and other stakeholders. The regional governments have worked with Professional Bodies, Trade Associations and Accreditation Schemes to ensure a smooth implementation process.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

BREEAM's Code for Sustainable Homes, BREEAM New Construction.

Codes Free to Access?

http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/AD_L1A_wm.pdf and http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/AD_L2A_wm.pdf

Link to Other Databases

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/United%20Kingdom