India

Summary

India’s energy code for commercial buildings is based on ASHRAE 90:1; however it has been amended to suit the varying range of climatic conditions within India. The code is voluntary until made mandatory by individual state governments. Energy performance is regulated through prescriptive requirements for the thermal envelope and performance requirements for HVAC, hot water, lighting and auxiliary systems. The code allows a prescriptive path or simulated (baseline building) calculation to show compliance.

The first energy code for commercial buildings in India was the 2007 ECBC. In 2008, the code was updated to include buildings with a connected load of 100kW and above as compared to 500kW and above requirement in the 2007 version , which was updated in 2008. Asversion. As of 2012, two states ten of the twenty-eight states in India have made the ECBC mandatory and six others have initiated the amendment/notification process for mandating the Code.. The current code and surrounding policy systems encompass dynamic initiatives including efficiency requirements for most systems, bio-climatic design, commissioning of HVAC systems, mandatory renewable energy (solar hot water) requirements for specific building types and special efficiency requirements for public buildings.

General Information

Full Title of Code

India - Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)

Year of Adoption

2007

Date of Enforcement

Tuesday, May 1, 2007

Authority in Charge

Bureau of Energy Efficiency.

Link

http://www.sgc-india.in/pdf/ECBC_final_May_2007.pdf

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://eco3.org/ecbc/

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

India

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
    • The standard sets minimum energy performance standards for buildings with connected loads greater than 500 kilowatts (kW) or 600 kilovolts-ampere (kVA).

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Cooling Based:
    Mostly a cooling based climate.
  • Warm and Humid
  • This code covers the 5 Indian climate zones: Composite, Hot and Dry, Warm and Humid, Moderate and Cold

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    Countrywide code requiring state implementation.
  • Prescriptive Codes:
    Prescriptive Method specifies prescribed minimum energy efficiency parameters for various components and systems of the proposed building.
  • Trade Off:
    Building Envelope Trade-Off Option - This is a systems-based approach, where the thermal performance of individual envelope components can be reduced if compensated by higher efficiency in other building components (i.e., using higher wall insulation could allow for a less stringent U-factor requirement for windows, or vice versa.)
  • Energy Declaration:
    Partially, no mandatory requirements for energy declaration, but there is a voluntary labelling programme.
  • Model / reference Building:
    Whole Building Performance (WBP) Method is an alternative method to comply with the Code. This method is more complex than the Prescriptive Method, but offers considerable design flexibility. Based on a reference building.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Final Energy:
    Calculations are based on measurable end use energy on site. Annual energy use for the purposes of the whole building performance method shall be calculated in kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity use per year. Energy sources other than electricity which are used is used in the building shall be converted to kWh of electric energy at the rate of 0.75 kWh per megaJoule.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Technical installations
  • Lighting
  • Appliances
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    Residential facilities, hotels and hospitals with a centralized system shall have solar water heating for at least 1/5 of the design capacity.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Accreditation of applicants

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Mandatory Computer Modeling

Values for New Buildings

Commercial Buildings - Daytime Use Buildings, Hot & Dry Climate Zone

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)78--
CDD (°C)3722--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.49Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC-0.25
Visible Transmission-0.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - Daytime Use Buildings, Moderate Climate Zone.

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)21--
CDD (°C)2132--

Humidity

Values depends on the location within India.

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.41Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window6.9Window26.9
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.40.3
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - Daytime Use Buildings, Cold Climate Zone.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2331--
CDD (°C)678--

Humidity

Val

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.41Roof2-
Wall0.35Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.510.51
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - 24-Hour Use Buildings (Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers), Cold Climate Zone.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2331--
CDD (°C)678--

Humidity

Values depends on the location within India.

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.26Roof2-
Wall0.37Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.510.51
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - 24-Hour Use Buildings (Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers), Moderate Climate Zone.

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)21--
CDD (°C)2132--

Humidity

Values depends on the loction within India

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.41Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window6.9Window26.9
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.40.3
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - 24-Hour Use Buildings (Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers), Warm & Humid Climate Zone.

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)99--
CDD (°C)3222--

Humidity

Values depends on the specific loction

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.26Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.250.2
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - 24-Hour Use Buildings (Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers),Hot & Dry Climate Zone

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)78--
CDD (°C)3722--

Humidity

Values depends on the specific location

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.26Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.250.2
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Commercial Buildings - 24-Hour Use Buildings (Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers), Composite Climate Zone

GBPN Climate Classification

Cooling based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)78--
CDD (°C)3722--

Humidity

Values depends on the specific location

U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.26Roof2-
Wall0.44Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window3.3Window23.3
Others---
Overall U-Value---

U-values depend on the climate zone and the type of the use of the building, either 24 hour occupation or daytime use buildings (shown respectively below).

Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.250.2
Visible Transmission0.130.13
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Ventilation:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    General efficiency requirements that depend on the type and size of the system.
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

Zero Energy Targets:

  • Definition of nZEB/ZEB/Plus Energy etc:
    The near or zero energy building is understood as a building with limited or no net energy needs, there is no specific definition elaborating on what sources are considered eligible.
  • All end uses are not included
  • There is a realistic roadmap in place:
    Partially, unofficial roadmap exists, the US AID ECO III Project has developed a roadmap for commercial nZEB.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    Currently, there is no binding nZEB strategy.
  • Special Requirements for public buildings:
    There a program mandating that all (approximately 8,000) government buildings undertake ECBC-compliant energy-efficiency retrofit measures by the end of 2012.

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    Currently there is no recognized ‘levels beyond minimum standard’ strategy within the ECBC, but the code does encourage going beyond the minimum standard.
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2007
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

There are no incentive schemes to go beyond the minimum standard, there is a labeling program for star rating of buildings based on actual performance, there are other voluntary rating systems such as LEED India and Griha, which recognise performance which is higher than what is required by the code.

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

Key stakeholders are involved in knowledge development, implementation, as well as by being a part of capacity building initiatives. There have been no increases as yet in efficiency requirements.

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

The central nodal agency which administers the Code – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency has been involved in large scale capacity building activities through training workshops, development of manuals, tools, and other access to information through a series of programmes.

Provision of Appropriate Information for General Public

Since the code is not mandatory, there is not much understanding of the Code and its requirements outside the built environment profession. The government websites have publicly displayed information but there is no particular information dissemination plan which targets providing information to common people/building users.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

The most notable of the supporting initiatives are labeling schemes that support the code such as GRIHA and LEED. The number of ‘green’ buildings in India has increased in the last few years due to these voluntary best practice schemes. The BEE’s Star Rating System evaluates buildings based on operational energy use and is the only energy-use-specific building label used in India (Levine et al, 2012).

Supporting Certification Schemes

India Green Building Council Ratings.

Codes Free to Access?

http://www.sgc-india.in/pdf/ECBC_final_May_2007.pdf