The Netherlands

Summary

The Bouwbesluit 2012 is a mandatory performance-based code that requires an energy frame calculation to establish the maximum allowed Energy Performance Coefficient (EPN) for residential and non-residential buildings. The code addresses most thermal envelope requirements and energy-using systems within the EPN calculation, including, HVAC, hot water, lighting, bioclimatic design and renewable energy.

The Netherlands has had prescriptive energy efficiency requirements for buildings since the 1970’s. By 1995, energy performance values were already required for all new buildings - preempting the performance requirements of the EPBD. The 2012 code and related national policies have been further strengthened to include, mandatory computer modeling for all new buildings, air-tightness requirements for all new dwellings, thermal bridging linear value requirements, robust pre-occupancy commissioning and a national target to be energy-neutral by 2020.

General Information

Full Title of Code

Bouwbesluit 2012 - Chapter 5 (NEN 7120:2011)

Year of Adoption

2012

Authority in Charge

Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.

Link

http://www.bouwbesluitonline.nl/Inhoud/docs/wet/bb2012/hfd5

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

Netherlands

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
    • Sports facilities
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Performance Codes for New Builds:
    The Bouwbesluit 2012 is a mandatory performance-based code that requires an energy frame calculation to establish the maximum allowed Energy Performance Coefficient (EPN) for residential and non-residential buildings. Energy performance requirements (EPC) with reference to calculation method NEN 7120. Software is available to calculate the EPC based on NEN 7210.
  • Energy Declaration

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    The energy performance requirements are expressed in terms of the EPN coefficient factor.
  • Primary Energy:
    Regardless of the application of the building's characteristic energy, EPTot, determined as the sum of the primary energy converted use of fossil fuels for heating, humidification, fans, lighting, cooling, dehumidification, hot water and the total corresponding auxiliary energy , less primary energy converted to potential private plot production (building related) energy, eg solar electricity and supply of building-related cogeneration.
  • Life Cycle Assessment considered (embedded energy):
    Requirements with regard to the EPC are based on cost-benefit analysis throughout the lifecycle of the building.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Dehumidification
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    Partially, no specific requirement, but renewables are included in the EPN calculation. Additionally, there is a separate policy for the overall share of energy from renewable sources in The Netherlands. The ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation is responsible for policy making.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Accreditation of applicants
  • Post Occupancy control

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion
  • Post occupancy

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Energy Performance Certificate support BC
  • Positive labeling for building beyond the minimum BC level
  • Energy Offsets/Green Certificates
  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Airtightness testing required prior to compliance
  • Mandatory Computer Modeling
  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Residential Buildings

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2795--
CDD (°C)127--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.4Roof2-
Wall0.4Wall2-
Floor0.4Floor2-
Window1.4Window26
Others---
Overall U-Value0.4--
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.60.8
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Overall Thermal bridge max value:
    0.5
  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    200 dm3/s @10 Pa or 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 PaFor residential buildings, 200 dm3/s @10 Pa and for non-residential buildings 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 Pa
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance

100.00

Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)2795--
CDD (°C)127--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.4Roof2-
Wall0.4Wall2-
Floor0.4Floor2-
Window1.4Window26
Others---
Overall U-Value0.4--
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC0.60.8
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Overall Thermal bridge max value:
    0.5
  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    200 dm3/s @10 Pa or 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 PaFor residential buildings, 200 dm3/s @10 Pa and for non-residential buildings 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 Pa
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    2020
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • Definition of nZEB/ZEB/Plus Energy etc:
    As stated in EPBD recast, ‘nearly zero-energy building’ means a building that has a very high energy performance, as determined in accordance with Annex I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby.
  • All end uses are included
  • There is a realistic roadmap in place:
    As of 31-12-2018 new governmental buildings will have to built with an EPC near 0. All other new buildings will have to be build with an EPC near 0 as of 12-31-2020.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    Energy-neutral by 2020 (proposed).
  • Special Requirements for public buildings:
    With regards to Public Buildings, the Netherlands has incorporated in national law the requirement that the owner of a building with a total useful floor area of more than 1.000 m2 occupied by public authorities and by institutions providing public services to a large number of persons and therefore frequently visited by these persons must place an Energy Performance Certificate in a prominent place clearly visible to the public. Additionally, EPBD recast requirements for the 2018 target aslo apply.

Number of Earlier Codes

3

Current Defined Levels beyond Minimum Standard (present code)

3

Number of Future Aspirational Codes

3

Is there a Zero Energy Target

2020

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    3
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2015
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2008
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      50
    • Absolute target:
      90
  • Levels set in energy frame
  • Levels set in primary energy
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Residential:
    2015 the EPC will be tightened.
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Non-Residential :
    2015 the EPC will be tightened. On 31 December 2018 governmental buildings will have to be nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB)

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

1, Lente-akkoord [Spring Agreement], 50% improvement on 2007 regulations by 2015, Financial support for energy efficient buildings with an energy performance that go beyond the introduced standard. 2, Meer Met Minder ‘More with less’ is a Dutch energy saving programme for existing buildings. 3, ‘Energy subsidy guide’ (Energiesubsidiewijzer). 4, ‘Energy Scout’ (Energiebesparingsverkenner).

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

Key stakeholders are involved through the Consultative Process Building Regulations (OPB).

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

General information is provided by the government. Trade organizations should provide training to their members.

Provision of Appropriate Information for General Public

Through press releases and news / magazines / websites etc.

Education Systems to Ensure Capacity

Yes.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

EPN Energy Performance Standard

Codes Free to Access?

http://www.bouwbesluitonline.nl/Inhoud/docs/wet/bb2012/hfd5

Evaluation

Link to Other Databases

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Netherlands