Spain

Summary

The CET covers residential and non-residential buildings and requires a performance-based reference building calculation (manual or simulation) to show compliance for most building types. A prescriptive path can be used for buildings in specific locations with a WWR of less than 60%. The CET addresses thermal envelope requirements and energy efficiency standards in the calculation, including, HVAC, hot water, lighting and auxiliary systems.

Spain first implemented prescriptive energy efficiency requirements for buildings in 1979. Recent updates have increased requirements in order to meet the expectations of the EPBD and the subsequent recast in 2010. The 2009 CET and supporting policy encompasses progressive aspects including, mandatory renewable energy requirements (solar hot water and photovoltaic systems), compulsory post occupancy testing of boilers and HVAC systems, bioclimatic design considerations, mandatory performance requirements for existing buildings and low energy classes through Energy Performance Certification levels A, B & C.

General Information

Full Title of Code

Docmento Basico HE Ahorro de Energia - CTE, Código Técnico de la Edificación (Technical Energy Code)

Year of Adoption

2009

Date of Enforcement

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Authority in Charge

Ministero de Fomento (Ministry of Public Works)

Link

http://www.codigotecnico.org/cte/export/sites/default/web/galerias/archivos/DB_H...

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Spain

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

Spain

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Mixed:
    12 climate zones, heating based, combined climate, moderate to cooling based climates.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code
  • Prescriptive Codes:
    Simplified or precriptive method (In the HE2, HE3, HE4 and HE5), only appiles for buildings where the glazing area is less than 60% of total building. (WWR) and where skylight surface area is less than 5% of total roof area. (With some exceptions)
  • Performance Codes for Refurbishments:
    Partially, based on reference building comparison calculation.
  • Performance Codes for New Builds:
    The CTE covers residential and non-residential buildings and requires a performance-based reference building calculation (manual or simulation) to show compliance for most building types.
  • Model / reference Building:
    Calculations can be manual or computer simulation to show expected energy use compared to a reference building of the same size and shape.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    For residential buildings, the calculated value is compared with a series of reference values that vary according to the climate area where the house is, both for new buildings and for the existing housing stock in the year 2007. For tertiary buildings, the energy rating is granted in accordance to the data of the building to be rated, as compared to a reference building abiding by the building energy regulations.
  • Primary Energy:
    No requirements in terms of energy performance exist. Instead there are requirements on for limiting energy demand (maximum thermal transmittance, condensation control and air permeability of the windows and doors) - Performance of heating/cooling systems - Performance of lighting systems - Renewables (solar water heater, PVs). The EPC does displays the annual primary consumption of energy of the building and, apart from the energy rating achieved, its CO2 global emissions.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Dehumidification
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Technical installations
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    30%-70% of domestic hot water to be covered by solar thermal energy, Minimum precibed Solar hot water requirements that depend on the location and expected demand within the building, maintenance and heat exchanger efficiency requirements. PV mandatory for the following buildings, supermarkets, malls, storage, Hotels, Hospitals and pavillions, depending on thier size (3000-5000 m2) In all cases the system should supply 6.25kWp at peak power and 5.0kW for minimum power.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Third party inspection

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Energy Performance Certificate support BC
  • Positive labeling for building beyond the minimum BC level
  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Climate Zone D3 (Madrid) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)1862--
CDD (°C)871--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.38Roof2-
Wall0.66Wall2-
Floor0.49Floor2-
Window3.5Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation.
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Climate Zone C2/C1 (Barcelona/Bilboa) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Mixed

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)1300--
CDD (°C)699--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.41Roof2-
Wall0.73Wall2-
Floor0.5Floor2-
Window4.3Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Zone B3 (Valencia) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Mixed

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)1181--
CDD (°C)1039--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.45Roof2-
Wall0.82Wall2-
Floor0.52Floor2-
Window5.7Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Climate Zone A (Malaga) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN Climate Classification

Mixed

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)794--
CDD (°C)1089--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.5Roof2-
Wall0.94Wall2-
Floor0.53Floor2-
Window5.2Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • Technical HVAC systems:
    Coefficient of performance of HVAC system is Not specified
  • Efficient Lighting

Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    2020
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • All end uses are not included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    Not yet, it is being developed.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    2018/2020 EPBD requirements.

Number of Earlier Codes

2

Current Defined Levels beyond Minimum Standard (present code)

3

Number of Future Aspirational Codes

2

Is there a Zero Energy Target

2020

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    3
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2002
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

Grants for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (2004-2020), Gas and Electricity tax revenue disbursed to regional governments, and topped up with private funds (65%) and the Grants are proportional to different energy requirements and efficiency measures related to the codes and the EPC labels

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

The stakeholders are asked to review the new requirements to be established in the next recast of the CTE, which is underway by the Ministry of Fomentoof the Spanish government.

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

When the new CTE was approved, the Ministerio de Fomento and ID AE, representing Ministerio de Industria, organized training sessions for the 17 regions. The regions and the "Engineers and Architects associations" gave CTE interpretations courses, as well as a training course to learn to use the official software LIDER ( to justify compliance HE.1 CTE) and the CALENER (Energy rating software for new buildings).

Provision of Appropriate Information for General Public

The spread of knowledge regarding the new CTE among industry players is responsibility of the Ministerio de Fomento.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

The building energy certification is an energy label similar to other domestic products like the appliances.

Supporting Certification Schemes

Certificado de Eficiencia Energética del Edificio, Annual primary energy consumption and a classification based on CO2 emissions, where C1 is relative to a modelled building meeting regulations, and C2 is relative to existing building stock averages, Classes A-G. Passivhaus, http://www.plataforma-pep.org.

Codes Free to Access?

http://www.codigotecnico.org/cte/export/sites/default/web/galerias/archivos/DB_HE_abril_2009.pdf

Evaluation

Link to Other Databases

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Spain