Sweden

Summary

The latest BBR sets mandatory overall performance demands for dwellings and non-residential buildings that depends on the location and type of heating system employed. The code outlines prescriptive requirements for the thermal envelope and encourages efficient and thoughtful design of the energy consuming systems including, HVAC, hot water, lighting, auxiliary systems, as well as materials and products. Compliance is achieved through measuring the actual energy use of the (occupied) completed building and showing it to be less than or equal to the allowable energy frame.

Sweden has a long history of energy efficiency requirements for buildings, with the first prescriptive requirements being implemented in 1946. The first performance-based code arose following the EPBD in 2002. The latest BBR encompasses many dynamic aspects including low overall u-values requirements, mandatory energy measurement, Specific Fan Power requirements, performance requirements for buildings undergoing renovation and interim (2015) performance targets for most building types in preparation for the nZEB target of 2020.

General Information

Full Title of Code

Boverket’s Building Regulations, BBR18 - (BFS 2011:26)

Year of Adoption

2010

Date of Enforcement

Thursday, March 1, 2007

Authority in Charge

Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning.

Link

http://www.boverket.se/Om-Boverket/Webbokhandel/Publikationer/2008/Building-Regu...

Link to Relevant Web Page

http://www.boverket.se/Global/Webbokhandel/Dokument/2012/BBR-engelsk/BFS%202011-...

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage

Sweden

Code set at:

National Level

Coverage

Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based
  • 3 climate zones, North - Very Cold/subarctic, Middle - Cold, and South - Cold marine, Cold. All are heating based.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    National Code.
  • Performance Codes for Refurbishments:
    Performance based requirements based on calculated final energy and post occupancy energy measurement.
  • Performance Codes for New Builds:
    Performance based requirements based on calculated final energy and post occupancy energy measurement.
  • Energy Declaration:
    The two first categories of buildings must always have an energy declaration of less than ten years old, and after the recast of EPBD all buildings bigger than 500 sqr meters which the public can attend must declare energy use.

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    Most buildings are required to meet an overall performance frame and It shall be possible to continuously monitor the building’s energy use by a method of measurement. The method shall ensure that the energy use of the building can be read to enable calculation of the building’s energy use for the desired time period.
  • Final Energy:
    The performance of final energy [kWh/m2 Atemp] is calculated using the measured values from heating and cooling energy, as well as energy used for the ventilation system, domestic hot water and for the property’s energy, including for example pumps and lighting in public spaces; all this is divided by the area [Atemp] of the building that is intended to be heated to over 10 °C.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Technical installations
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Heat recovery
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements
  • Renewable Energy (solar, PV, others):
    The building's specific energy use may be reduced by solar energy, No requirement in building regulations, but there are requirements in relation to electricity supply mix by RE certificates.

Enforcement

Enforcement Status of Code:

Mandatory

Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Third party inspection
  • Post Occupancy control

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post occupancy

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Energy Performance Certificate support BC
  • Positive labeling for building beyond the minimum BC level
  • Energy Offsets/Green Certificates
    • Number of certified buildings:
      280000
  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • Fine
  • Refusal of permission to occupy
  • Refusal of permission to construct

Measures Supporting Enforcement:

  • Commissioning requirements
  • Training of Inspectors

Values for New Buildings

Climate Zone 3 - Residential, Non-Electrically Heated

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)3851--
CDD (°C)102--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.13Roof2-
Wall0.18Wall2-
Floor0.15Floor2-
Window1.3Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value0.4--
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    An Specific Fan Power (SFP) of between 0.6 and 2 kW/(m3/s) is required depending on the system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.61 l/(s.m2) at 50 Pa
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance

90.00kwh

Climate Zone 3 - Residential, Electrically Heated

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)3851--
CDD (°C)102--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.08Roof2-
Wall0.1Wall2-
Floor0.1Floor2-
Window1.1Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value0.4--
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    An Specific Fan Power (SFP) of between 0.6 and 2 kW/(m3/s) is required depending on the system
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.61 l/(s.m2) at 50 Pa
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance

55.00kwh

Climate Zone 3 - Non Residential, Non Electrically Heated

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)3851--
CDD (°C)102--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof-Roof2-
Wall-Wall2-
Floor-Floor2-
Window-Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value0.6--
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    An Specific Fan Power (SFP) of between 0.6 and 2 kW/(m3/s) is required depending on the system
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.61 l/(s.m2) at 50 Pa
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance

80.00kwh

Climate Zone 1 - Residential, Electrically Heated

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

MeanMinMax
HDD (°C)5412--
CDD (°C)50--
U-Value (W/m²K)
Roof0.13Roof2-
Wall0.18Wall2-
Floor0.15Floor2-
Window1.3Window2-
Others---
Overall U-Value---
Window1Window2
G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--
Percent--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    An Specific Fan Power (SFP) of between 0.6 and 2 kW/(m3/s) is required depending on the system
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.61 l/(s.m2) at 50 Pa
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance

95.00kwh

Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    2015-2020
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • All end uses are included
  • There is a realistic roadmap in place:
    http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/18/97/90/7427abd3.pdf (in Swedish)
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    2020

Number of Earlier Codes

5

Number of Future Aspirational Codes

2

Is there a Zero Energy Target

2019

Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    2
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    1990
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2009
  • Levels set in energy frame
  • Levels set in primary energy
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Residential:
    55 -75 kWh/ m2a or 30 -50 kWh/ m2a
    55 -75 kWh/ m2a depending on climate zone (non-electric heating) and 30 -50 kWh/ m2a depending on climate zone (electric heating) - 2020
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Non-Residential :
    50-105 kWh/ m2a or 30 -75 kWh/ m2a
    50-105 kWh/ m2a depending on climate zone (non-electric heating) and 30 -75 kWh/ m2a depending on climate zone (electric heating)- 2020

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

Incentives and subsidies are administrated by Boverket and the statistics are published on the website www.boverket.se. and Energy Demonstrations by http://energimyndigheten.se/en/

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes

During all work with revisions of the building code the stakeholders get a period in the middle to express their opinions.

Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?

The national board goes out to the municipalities and educates the public personnell and the education companies then they havet o educate the local stakeholders.

Provision of Appropriate Information for General Public

http://www.boverket.se/ and http://www.omboende.se/

Education Systems to Ensure Capacity

Yes.

Supporting Labeling Schemes

http://www.svanen.se/en/

Supporting Certification Schemes

http://www.enerwex.se/

Codes Free to Access?

http://www.boverket.se/Om-Boverket/Webbokhandel/Publikationer/2008/Building-Regulations-BBR/

Link to Other Databases

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Sweden