In the United States, the national model energy codes began in 1975, with ASHRAE Standard 90-75. Model energy codes are developed by two private sector organizations: the American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the International Codes Council. ASHRAE focusses mainly on commercial codes, while the ICC mainly facilitates development of residential codes. States adopt model codes, at which point they become standards.
Exact Start Year
Start Year Range
Revision Schedule Explanation
National model codes are updated on a three year cycle.
|Existing Code Coverage|
Enforcement model: a mix of approaches. In the United States, administration and enforcement of energy codes is typically the responsibility of state or local governments. The most common structure is that the state adopts the code, but the local government enforces it. However, there are cases where local governments adopt their own codes and cases where the state enforces the code within the state. There is a role for private sector/third party enforcement in some jurisdictions.
|Compliance Checking on Design|
|Compliance Checking on Construction|
|Compliance Checking on Pre-Occupancy|
|Air Tightness testing|
|Commissioning before occupancy|
|Commissioning after occupancy|
|Compliance Software Residential|
Name of Software
REScheck, the REMrate or REMdesign (for low-rise residential buildings)
The U.S. Department of Energy’s software tool REScheck (for low-rise residential buildings), is maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and available at www.energycodes.gov. This software is not mandatory.
|Compliance Software Non-Residential|
Name of Software
COMcheck (for commercial buildings)
The US Department of Energy software COMcheck (for commercial buildings), is maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and available at www.energycodes.gov. This software is not required. For commercial buildings, users of whole building performance-based approaches may also use any building energy simulation tool of their choice as long as that tool has been tested according to ASHRAE Standard 140 and meets the requirements listed in the code.
|Penalties for non-compliance|
Some jurisdictions impose fines
Builders may have posted bond forfeited if the building does not achieve energy targets.
|Incentives and Recognition program for compliance|
Utility programs offer money in exchange for particular improvements to buildings. The property assessed clean energy (PACE) program helps pay for renovations and other programs for offering lower interest rate loans for energy efficient construction. There are also a number of programs like Energy Star in commercial buildings that essentially offer recognition for improved building performance.
|Compliance Rate monitoring|
A recent study conducted by DOE is available at: http://www.energycodes.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Compliance%20Pi....
|Compliance Rate Publicised|
Studies available online for individual states. See for example, the results of 4 compliance studies conducted for the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) in Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon at http://neea.org/initiatives/codes-standards/codes/code-compliance.
|Compliance Lessons Learned|
Results of compliance studies are used to provide directed training. DOE is conducting a project designed to figure out the cost-effectiveness of training, education and outreach.
|Compliance Energy Use Statistics|
|Compliance Rate in %|
DOE offers education and capacity building through its www.energycodes.gov website. ICC and ASHRAE offer training through their websites. Many states and third-party organizations also offer training. (See http://www.energycodes.gov/adoption/states for listing of individual states with links to individual state energy offices through which training is provided). There are also a number of organizations (at the federal, state, and local levels) that promote building better buildings.
|Building Materials Ratings|
Building materials are rated in the United States. Random sampling of materials is used with testing conducted by certified laboratories. There are labels for windows, and labels are required on some types of insulation.