中国公共建筑

总结、概要

中国的公共建筑物标准于2005年制定,目的是提高非居住建筑物(如商业类、教育类和政府用建筑物)的能源绩效。该标准中列出一些强制性和自愿性的能源绩效标准,强调围护结构的热工性能,以及供热、制冷、热水供应和水管系统中的能源效率要求。该标准允许采用指定途径或模拟的定制预算途径(参照建筑物),以确定是否合规。

中国的第一部非居住建筑能效标准是颁布的《旅游旅馆建筑热工与空气调整节能设计标准》。2005年,该标准经过更新并扩大适用范围,从而将所有公共建筑物均包括在内,目的是与20世纪80年代的典型建筑物相比,将年度能源消耗降低50%。本标准包括提高能源效率方面的各种措施,譬如自然通风和遮阳板方面的设计,通风系统中的变速传动装置与控制要求,供暖和冷却系统中的效率和控制要求,以及集中供热中的强制性热水使用。

一般信息

规范的全称

2005年公共建筑节能设计标准 - GB 50189-2005

颁布年份

2005

实施时间

Friday, July 1, 2005

主管机关

Issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China.

连接

http://codeofchina.com/gb/architectural/43.html

链接至相关网页

http://energycodesocean.org/search/apachesolr_search/china

规范恢复

地理位置覆盖

中国

规范设置在:

全国 水平

范围

建筑规范的范围:

  • Commercial buildings
    • 写字楼
    • 零售与批发
    • 酒店
    • Hospitals
    • 教学楼
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • 医院
    • Educational buildings

GBPN气候分类:

  • 供暖型
  • 混合式
  • This code covers 5 official Chinese climate zones. These include based, combined climate, moderate climate and cooling based.

建筑规范的类型

建筑规范的类型:

  • 样板规范、框架或实际规范:
    National Code.
  • 法条规范:
    The standard allows a prescriptive path or simulated ‘custom budget’ approach (reference building) to show compliance.
  • 样板/参考建筑:
    In addition to the prescriptive requirements above, the public building standard contain performance options whereby a building is deemed to meet the standard so long as its calculated building energy use is below that of a reference building. This “custom budget” approach is similar to that used in US standards such as ASHRAE 90.1, and differs from the “fixed budget” approach used in several other Asian countries.

涉及的能源

能源要求的基础:

  • 终端能源:
    The custom budget method is used during the design stage. The energy used in the simulation is based on site energy.

建筑规范包括的能源消耗和功能:

  • 供暖
  • 制冷
  • 除湿
  • 通风
  • 气密性
  • 热桥
  • 热水
  • 建筑物组成部分(电梯、水泵等)
  • 照明
  • 建筑的设计、位置和朝向
  • 被动式太阳能
  • Passive cooling
  • 自然通风
  • 可再生能源 (太阳能、光伏等):
    Partially, China encourages the utilization of renewable and new technologies to improve building energy efficiency. One of objectives of building energy codes is to make sure new buildings meet the minimum building energy performance.

实施

建筑规范的实施情况:

强制性执行

实施类型:

  • 本地执行
  • 第三方检验
  • 中央执行

现场检查发生

  • 施工期间
  • 竣工后

支持规范实施的认证:

  • 锅炉检验

不合规的惩罚:

  • Fine
  • 拒发入住许可
  • 拒发施工许可

新建筑值

All Buildings - Hot Summer Cold Winter Region

GBPN气候分类

混合式

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)1559--
制冷度日 (°C)1389--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.7屋顶2-
1墙2-
地面1地面2-
窗户2.5窗户24.7
其他3--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

All Buildings - Severe Cold Zone B

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2195--
制冷度日 (°C)1281--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.35屋顶20.45
0.45墙20.55
地面0.45地面20.5
窗户1.5窗户23.2
其他2.6--
整体U值---

Heat transfer coefficients depends on the profile coefficient.

窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

All Buildings - Cold Region

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2195--
制冷度日 (°C)1281--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.45屋顶20.55
0.5墙20.6
地面0.5地面20.6
窗户1.8窗户23.5
其他2.7--
整体U值---

Heat transfer coefficients depends on the profile coefficient.

窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

All Buildings - Hot-summer-hot-winter region

GBPN气候分类

混合式

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2195--
制冷度日 (°C)1281--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.9屋顶2-
1.5墙2-
地面1.5地面2-
窗户3窗户26.5
其他3.5--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

All Buildings - Severe Cold Zone A

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2195--
制冷度日 (°C)1281--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.3屋顶20.35
0.4墙20.45
地面0.4地面20.6
窗户1.5窗户23
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Boiler efficiency requirements, New buildings may not use electric boilers and electric water heaters for heating
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

规范历史和未来目标

零能耗目标:

  • 近零能耗/零能耗/正能耗的定义:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.
  • 不包括所有的终端用能设备
  • 没有准备好现实的路线图:
    China is now focused on the compliance of building energy efficiency for new buildings, rather than ZEB.
  • 全国达到近零能耗目标日期:
    China is currently at the studying stage of these definitions and concepts.
  • 公共建筑特殊要求:
    The State Council issued the Regulations on Energy Conservation in Civil Buildings, developed by MOHURD, in October 2008. This was a recent governmental effort to promote building energy efficiency in residential and public buildings.

多重数据组:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    0
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2005
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2005
  • 预期能耗的实际消耗
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

支持措施

利益相关群体参与规范制定

During the development of building energy codes, invited building energy experts are heavily involved in the development of building energy codes/standards. They have direct experiences of using building energy codes, and/or communicate directly with other key stakeholders who practice building energy codes. Some of these experts also have contact with relevant national policy decision makers, which help build communication between policy development and code development.