德国

总结、概要

EnEV是一部绩效型建筑规范,它要求进行强制性(等效示范建筑物)能源框架计算以确定住宅和非住宅建筑物的预计一次能耗。规范涉及计算中的热封套要求以及耗能或造能系统,包括HVAC、热水、照明(仅限非住宅)、生物气候设计和可再生能源。此规范将围护热工性能要求、耗能和产能系统纳入计算当中,包括HVAC、热水、照明(只限于非住宅用)、生物气候设计和可再生能源等。

德国自1977年起就制定了自己的指定型建筑能效要求。在2002年实施EPBD后,德国首次颁布自己的绩效型建筑规范。规范的2012年版和支持政策涉及很多进步方面,包括与气候有关的低化最大U值、强制计算机模拟、气密性要求、激励方案、频繁锅炉和HVAC测试、严格的EPC计划、自愿性低能耗分类,以及制定了在2020年前建造气候友好型建筑物的国家目标。

 

一般信息

规范的全称

德国2012年节能法规(EnEV)

颁布年份

2012

主管机关

Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development, Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

规范恢复

地理位置覆盖

德国

规范设置在:

全国 水平

范围

建筑规范的范围:

  • 住宅建筑
    • 单户
    • 多户建筑
  • Commercial buildings
    • 写字楼
    • 酒店
    • Hospitals
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • 医院

GBPN气候分类:

  • 供暖型
  • Climatic zones are not used. Instead residential buildings have a required energy efficiency depending on the geometry of the building.

建筑规范的类型

建筑规范的类型:

  • 样板规范、框架或实际规范:
    National Code.
  • 新建建筑性能规范:
    The EnEV is a performance-based code that requires a mandatory (equivalent model building) energy frame calculation to establish the expected primary energy consumption of residential and non-residential buildings.
  • 能耗声明:
    Energy Performnace Certificate
  • 样板/参考建筑:
    The energy performance requirement is based on an equivalent model building and measured as kWh/m2/year of primary energy.

涉及的能源

能源要求的基础:

  • 总体性能框架
  • 一次能源:
    The energy performance requirement is based on an equivalent model building and measured as kWh/m2/year of primary energy.

建筑规范包括的能源消耗和功能:

  • 供暖
  • 制冷
  • 除湿
  • 通风
  • 气密性
  • 热桥
  • 热水
  • 技术装置
  • 照明
  • 建筑的设计、位置和朝向
  • Passive cooling
  • 可再生能源 (太阳能、光伏等):
    Requirement of heat supply based on renewable energy 15 ~ 50% depending on the type of renewable energy and building.

实施

建筑规范的实施情况:

强制性执行

实施类型:

  • 申请人认证

现场检查发生

  • 施工期间
  • 竣工后

支持规范实施的认证:

  • 能耗性能证书(EPC)支持建筑规范
  • 超出最低建筑规范要求的建筑标识
  • 锅炉检验
  • 暖通空调系统检验

不合规的惩罚:

  • 拒发入住许可
  • 拒发施工许可

支持实施的措施:

  • 强制计算机建模模拟
  • 检验人员培训

新建筑值

Residential and Non-Residential buildings.

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)3093--
制冷度日 (°C)245--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.2屋顶2-
0.28墙2-
地面0.28地面2-
窗户1.3窗户21.8
其他1.4--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数0.50.5
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    For naturally ventilated buildings, n50 is 3.0h-1 and for mechanically ventilated buildings, n50 is 1.5h-1.
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

能源绩效(性能)

0.00kwh

规范历史和未来目标

设定要求的一般流程:

  • 未来目标制定提前多长时间?:
    2018, 2020
  • 利益团体提前很多时间得到未来目标的通知。

零能耗目标:

  • 包括所有的终端用能设备
  • 没有准备好现实的路线图:
    Not known at this stage.
  • 全国达到近零能耗目标日期:
    By 2020 buildings should be operating without fossil fuel. The German government has committed to reducing the primary energy demand of buildings by 80% by 2050. Achieving this reduction will require foremost efficiency improvements, with a first milestone of a 20% reduction in heat demand levels by 2020.

较早规范数量

5

多重数据组:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    Residential Low Energy Building requirements = kfW60 (60kWh/(m2•a) or KfW40 (40 kWh/(m2•a)) maximum energy consumption or Passive House = KfW-40 buildings with an annual heat demand lower than 15 kWh/m2 and total consumption lower than 120 kWh/m2
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2014
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2009
  • 预期能耗的实际消耗
    • Relative target in percent:
      30
  • Levels set in primary energy
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Residential:
    In 2020 new buildings shall be “climate friendly” with less primary energy demand.
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Non-Residential :
    In 2020 new buildings shall be “climate friendly” with less primary energy demand.

支持措施

是否有 鼓励人们超最低要求的激励措施/奖励?

The government-owned banking group Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (fW) plays a central role concerning promotion of energy savings and CO2 reduction in the building sector. Between 1990 and the end of 2009 subsidies for at least 3.1 million homes were implemented. In 2009, total subsidies amounted to 16.9 billion, of which 10.6 billion was for energy effciency and 6.3 billion for renewable energies.

利益相关群体参与规范制定

Yes

在规范实施后提供给利益相关群体的培训水平?

Yes

向普通大众提供合适的信息

Yes

确保能力的教育系统

Yes

支持标识计划

Yes

支持认证计划

Yes

规范是否免费获取?

Yes

有关规范获取的文本

http://www.enev-online.de/

同其他数据库链接

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Germany