荷兰

总结、概要

The Bouwbesluit 2012 is a mandatory performance-based code that requires an energy frame calculation to establish the maximum allowed Energy Performance Coefficient (EPN) for residential and non-residential buildings. The code addresses most thermal envelope requirements and energy-using systems within the EPN calculation, including, HVAC, hot water, lighting, bioclimatic design and renewable energy.

2012年Bouwbesluit是一部强制的绩效型建筑规范,它要求进行能源框架计算(即最大能源消耗计算)以确定住宅和非住宅建筑物的最大允许能效系数(EPN)。此规范将围护热工性能要求和耗能系统 (包括HVAC、热水、照明、生物气候设计和可再生能源等)纳入EPN计算。

The Netherlands has had prescriptive energy efficiency requirements for buildings since the 1970’s. By 1995, energy performance values were already required for all new buildings - preempting the performance requirements of the EPBD. The 2012 code and related national policies have been further strengthened to include, mandatory computer modeling for all new buildings, air-tightness requirements for all new dwellings, thermal bridging linear value requirements, robust pre-occupancy commissioning and a national target to be energy-neutral by 2020.

早在70年代,荷兰就制定了自己的指定型建筑能效要求。在1995年前,所有新建建筑物都要求提供能效值,取代EPBD绩效要求。Bouwbesluit 2012和有关国家政策被进一步强化,要求对多数新建建筑物强制进行计算机建模、所有新建住宅进行气密性测试、热桥线性值要求、入住前调试要求以及在2020年前达到能耗均衡的国家目标。

 

一般信息

规范的全称

2012年Bouwbesluit:第5章

颁布年份

2012

主管机关

Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.

连接

http://www.bouwbesluitonline.nl/Inhoud/docs/wet/bb2012/hfd5

规范恢复

地理位置覆盖

荷兰

规范设置在:

全国 水平

范围

建筑规范的范围:

  • 住宅建筑
    • 单户
    • 多户建筑
  • Commercial buildings
    • 写字楼
    • 零售与批发
    • 酒店
    • Hospitals
    • 教学楼
    • Sports facilities
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • 医院
    • Educational buildings

GBPN气候分类:

  • 供暖型

建筑规范的类型

建筑规范的类型:

  • 新建建筑性能规范:
    The Bouwbesluit 2012 is a mandatory performance-based code that requires an energy frame calculation to establish the maximum allowed Energy Performance Coefficient (EPN) for residential and non-residential buildings. Energy performance requirements (EPC) with reference to calculation method NEN 7120. Software is available to calculate the EPC based on NEN 7210.
  • 能耗声明

涉及的能源

能源要求的基础:

  • 总体性能框架:
    The energy performance requirements are expressed in terms of the EPN coefficient factor.
  • 一次能源:
    Regardless of the application of the building's characteristic energy, EPTot, determined as the sum of the primary energy converted use of fossil fuels for heating, humidification, fans, lighting, cooling, dehumidification, hot water and the total corresponding auxiliary energy , less primary energy converted to potential private plot production (building related) energy, eg solar electricity and supply of building-related cogeneration.
  • 寿命周期评估(隐含能源):
    Requirements with regard to the EPC are based on cost-benefit analysis throughout the lifecycle of the building.

建筑规范包括的能源消耗和功能:

  • 供暖
  • 制冷
  • 除湿
  • 通风
  • 气密性
  • 热桥
  • 热水
  • 建筑物组成部分(电梯、水泵等)
  • 照明
  • 建筑的设计、位置和朝向
  • 被动式太阳能
  • Passive cooling
  • 自然通风
  • 遮阳
  • 日光照明要求
  • 可再生能源 (太阳能、光伏等):
    Partially, no specific requirement, but renewables are included in the EPN calculation. Additionally, there is a separate policy for the overall share of energy from renewable sources in The Netherlands. The ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation is responsible for policy making.

实施

建筑规范的实施情况:

强制性执行

实施类型:

  • 本地执行
  • 申请人认证
  • 入住后控制

现场检查发生

  • 施工期间
  • 竣工后
  • 入住后

支持规范实施的认证:

  • 能耗性能证书(EPC)支持建筑规范
  • 超出最低建筑规范要求的建筑标识
  • 能源补偿/绿色证书
  • 锅炉检验
  • 暖通空调系统检验

不合规的惩罚:

  • 拒发入住许可
  • 拒发施工许可

支持实施的措施:

  • 调试要求
  • 合规前要求进行的气密性测试
  • 强制计算机建模模拟
  • 检验人员培训

新建筑值

Residential Buildings

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2795--
制冷度日 (°C)127--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.4屋顶2-
0.4墙2-
地面0.4地面2-
窗户1.4窗户26
其他---
整体U值0.4--
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数0.60.8
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Overall Thermal bridge max value:
    0.5
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    200 dm3/s @10 Pa or 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 PaFor residential buildings, 200 dm3/s @10 Pa and for non-residential buildings 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 Pa
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

能源绩效(性能)

100.00

Non-Residential

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2795--
制冷度日 (°C)127--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.4屋顶2-
0.4墙2-
地面0.4地面2-
窗户1.4窗户26
其他---
整体U值0.4--
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数0.60.8
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Overall Thermal bridge max value:
    0.5
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    200 dm3/s @10 Pa or 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 PaFor residential buildings, 200 dm3/s @10 Pa and for non-residential buildings 200 dm3/s per 500 m3 @10 Pa
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

规范历史和未来目标

设定要求的一般流程:

  • 未来目标制定提前多长时间?:
    2020
  • 利益团体提前很多时间得到未来目标的通知。

零能耗目标:

  • 近零能耗/零能耗/正能耗的定义:
    As stated in EPBD recast, ‘nearly zero-energy building’ means a building that has a very high energy performance, as determined in accordance with Annex I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby.
  • 包括所有的终端用能设备
  • 准备好现实的路线图:
    As of 31-12-2018 new governmental buildings will have to built with an EPC near 0. All other new buildings will have to be build with an EPC near 0 as of 12-31-2020.
  • 全国达到近零能耗目标日期:
    Energy-neutral by 2020 (proposed).
  • 公共建筑特殊要求:
    With regards to Public Buildings, the Netherlands has incorporated in national law the requirement that the owner of a building with a total useful floor area of more than 1.000 m2 occupied by public authorities and by institutions providing public services to a large number of persons and therefore frequently visited by these persons must place an Energy Performance Certificate in a prominent place clearly visible to the public. Additionally, EPBD recast requirements for the 2018 target aslo apply.

较早规范数量

3

超过最低标准的现行水平(现行规范)

3

未来可能采用的规范数量

3

Is there a Zero Energy Target

2020

多重数据组:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    3
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2015
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2008
  • 预期能耗的实际消耗
    • Relative target in percent:
      50
    • Absolute target:
      90
  • Levels set in energy frame
  • Levels set in primary energy
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Residential:
    2015 the EPC will be tightened.
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Non-Residential :
    2015 the EPC will be tightened. On 31 December 2018 governmental buildings will have to be nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB)

支持措施

是否有 鼓励人们超最低要求的激励措施/奖励?

1, Lente-akkoord [Spring Agreement], 50% improvement on 2007 regulations by 2015, Financial support for energy efficient buildings with an energy performance that go beyond the introduced standard. 2, Meer Met Minder ‘More with less’ is a Dutch energy saving programme for existing buildings. 3, ‘Energy subsidy guide’ (Energiesubsidiewijzer). 4, ‘Energy Scout’ (Energiebesparingsverkenner).

利益相关群体参与规范制定

Key stakeholders are involved through the Consultative Process Building Regulations (OPB).

在规范实施后提供给利益相关群体的培训水平?

General information is provided by the government. Trade organizations should provide training to their members.

向普通大众提供合适的信息

Through press releases and news / magazines / websites etc.

确保能力的教育系统

Yes.

支持标识计划

EPN Energy Performance Standard

规范是否免费获取?

http://www.bouwbesluitonline.nl/Inhoud/docs/wet/bb2012/hfd5

评估

同其他数据库链接

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Netherlands