西班牙

总结、概要

CET规范覆盖住宅和非住宅建筑物,对多种建筑种类采用绩效规范(performance-based),即对建筑物进行参考建筑物能效计算(人工或模拟)以证明建筑物合规。对于个别地区WWR低于60%的建筑物可以使用指定式规范。CET要求计算纳入围护结构的热工性能和用能设备的能效标准,包括HVAC、热水、照明和辅助系统。

西班牙1979年首次实施指定式建筑能效要求。最新的版本提高了能效要求以满足建筑能源绩效指令(EPBD, Energy Performance in Buildings Directive)和2010的修订。2009年的CET和配套政策包括强制性可再生能源要求(如太阳能热水系统和光电系统),必须执行的入住后对锅炉和HVAC系统的测试,生物气候设计考量,既有建筑的强制绩效要求,通过A、B、C级能效认证的低能耗分类。

一般信息

规范的全称

2009 年建筑技术规范(CET)

颁布年份

2009

实施时间

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

主管机关

Ministero de Fomento (Ministry of Public Works)

连接

http://www.codigotecnico.org/cte/export/sites/default/web/galerias/archivos/DB_H...

链接至相关网页

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Spain

规范恢复

地理位置覆盖

西班牙

规范设置在:

全国 水平

范围

建筑规范的范围:

  • 住宅建筑
    • 单户
    • 多户建筑
  • Commercial buildings
    • 写字楼
    • 零售与批发
    • 酒店
    • Hospitals
    • 教学楼
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • 医院
    • Educational buildings

GBPN气候分类:

  • 混合式:
    12 climate zones, heating based, combined climate, moderate to cooling based climates.

建筑规范的类型

建筑规范的类型:

  • 样板规范、框架或实际规范
  • 法条规范:
    Simplified or precriptive method (In the HE2, HE3, HE4 and HE5), only appiles for buildings where the glazing area is less than 60% of total building. (WWR) and where skylight surface area is less than 5% of total roof area. (With some exceptions)
  • 翻新建筑性能规范:
    Partially, based on reference building comparison calculation.
  • 新建建筑性能规范:
    The CTE covers residential and non-residential buildings and requires a performance-based reference building calculation (manual or simulation) to show compliance for most building types.
  • 样板/参考建筑:
    Calculations can be manual or computer simulation to show expected energy use compared to a reference building of the same size and shape.

涉及的能源

能源要求的基础:

  • 总体性能框架:
    For residential buildings, the calculated value is compared with a series of reference values that vary according to the climate area where the house is, both for new buildings and for the existing housing stock in the year 2007. For tertiary buildings, the energy rating is granted in accordance to the data of the building to be rated, as compared to a reference building abiding by the building energy regulations.
  • 一次能源:
    No requirements in terms of energy performance exist. Instead there are requirements on for limiting energy demand (maximum thermal transmittance, condensation control and air permeability of the windows and doors) - Performance of heating/cooling systems - Performance of lighting systems - Renewables (solar water heater, PVs). The EPC does displays the annual primary consumption of energy of the building and, apart from the energy rating achieved, its CO2 global emissions.

建筑规范包括的能源消耗和功能:

  • 供暖
  • 制冷
  • 除湿
  • 通风
  • 气密性
  • 热桥
  • 热水
  • 建筑物组成部分(电梯、水泵等)
  • 技术装置
  • 照明
  • 建筑的设计、位置和朝向
  • 被动式太阳能
  • Passive cooling
  • 自然通风
  • 遮阳
  • 日光照明要求
  • 可再生能源 (太阳能、光伏等):
    30%-70% of domestic hot water to be covered by solar thermal energy, Minimum precibed Solar hot water requirements that depend on the location and expected demand within the building, maintenance and heat exchanger efficiency requirements. PV mandatory for the following buildings, supermarkets, malls, storage, Hotels, Hospitals and pavillions, depending on thier size (3000-5000 m2) In all cases the system should supply 6.25kWp at peak power and 5.0kW for minimum power.

实施

建筑规范的实施情况:

强制性执行

实施类型:

  • 本地执行
  • 第三方检验

现场检查发生

  • 施工期间
  • 竣工后

支持规范实施的认证:

  • 能耗性能证书(EPC)支持建筑规范
  • 超出最低建筑规范要求的建筑标识
  • 锅炉检验
  • 暖通空调系统检验

不合规的惩罚:

  • 拒发入住许可
  • 拒发施工许可

支持实施的措施:

  • 调试要求
  • 检验人员培训

新建筑值

Climate Zone D3 (Madrid) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)1862--
制冷度日 (°C)871--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.38屋顶2-
0.66墙2-
地面0.49地面2-
窗户3.5窗户2-
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation.
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Climate Zone C2/C1 (Barcelona/Bilboa) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN气候分类

混合式

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)1300--
制冷度日 (°C)699--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.41屋顶2-
0.73墙2-
地面0.5地面2-
窗户4.3窗户2-
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Zone B3 (Valencia) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN气候分类

混合式

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)1181--
制冷度日 (°C)1039--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.45屋顶2-
0.82墙2-
地面0.52地面2-
窗户5.7窗户2-
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Climate Zone A (Malaga) - Residential and Non-Residential

GBPN气候分类

混合式

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)794--
制冷度日 (°C)1089--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.5屋顶2-
0.94墙2-
地面0.53地面2-
窗户5.2窗户2-
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Specifications depend on climate zone and construction, all systems included in calculation
  • Value for airtightness:
    27 m3/(h.m2) at 100 Pa (Not tested)
  • 暖通空调技术系统:
    暖通空调系统的性能系数是 Not specified
  • 高效照明

规范历史和未来目标

设定要求的一般流程:

  • 未来目标制定提前多长时间?:
    2020
  • 利益团体提前很多时间得到未来目标的通知。

零能耗目标:

  • 不包括所有的终端用能设备
  • 没有准备好现实的路线图:
    Not yet, it is being developed.
  • 全国达到近零能耗目标日期:
    2018/2020 EPBD requirements.

较早规范数量

2

超过最低标准的现行水平(现行规范)

3

未来可能采用的规范数量

2

Is there a Zero Energy Target

2020

多重数据组:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    3
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2002
  • 预期能耗的实际消耗
    • Relative target in percent:
      0

支持措施

是否有 鼓励人们超最低要求的激励措施/奖励?

Grants for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (2004-2020), Gas and Electricity tax revenue disbursed to regional governments, and topped up with private funds (65%) and the Grants are proportional to different energy requirements and efficiency measures related to the codes and the EPC labels

利益相关群体参与规范制定

The stakeholders are asked to review the new requirements to be established in the next recast of the CTE, which is underway by the Ministry of Fomentoof the Spanish government.

在规范实施后提供给利益相关群体的培训水平?

When the new CTE was approved, the Ministerio de Fomento and ID AE, representing Ministerio de Industria, organized training sessions for the 17 regions. The regions and the "Engineers and Architects associations" gave CTE interpretations courses, as well as a training course to learn to use the official software LIDER ( to justify compliance HE.1 CTE) and the CALENER (Energy rating software for new buildings).

向普通大众提供合适的信息

The spread of knowledge regarding the new CTE among industry players is responsibility of the Ministerio de Fomento.

支持标识计划

The building energy certification is an energy label similar to other domestic products like the appliances.

支持认证计划

Certificado de Eficiencia Energética del Edificio, Annual primary energy consumption and a classification based on CO2 emissions, where C1 is relative to a modelled building meeting regulations, and C2 is relative to existing building stock averages, Classes A-G. Passivhaus, http://www.plataforma-pep.org.

规范是否免费获取?

http://www.codigotecnico.org/cte/export/sites/default/web/galerias/archivos/DB_HE_abril_2009.pdf

评估

同其他数据库链接

Text

IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.

Link

http://www.sustainablebuildingscentre.org/countries/Spain