西雅图(美国)

总结、概要

西雅图的能源规范是根据华盛顿州能源规范制定的,但它增加了一些改善建筑性能的本地要求。该市规范规定了住宅和非住宅建筑的能效标准,对建筑外围的热性能,以及HVAC、热水、照明和辅助系统的最低能效提出了要求。此规范规定可以采用简单的法条式规范、建筑分部设计法或者系统分析法(参考建筑)来证明建筑合规。

西雅图早在1980年就制定了该市的第一个综合性能效计划并定期对能效要求进行持续改善。该市的2009年版规范和相关政策包括一系列改善能效的动态行动计划,这包括气密性测试、非住宅建筑的强制热回收、HVAC、热水和照明控制的调试要求、大型建筑的可再生能源要求、2030年挑战计划(净零能耗)和2050碳中性的长期目标、和公共建筑特殊能效等。

一般信息

规范的全称

西雅图2009年建筑能源规范

颁布年份

2010

实施时间

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

主管机关

Department of Planning and Development.

连接

http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/codes/energy_code/overview/2009_ecupdate.asp

链接至相关网页

http://energycodesocean.org/news/2010/november/05/2009-seattle-energy-code-appro...

规范恢复

地理位置覆盖

西雅图市

规范设置在:

地区/州/省 水平

范围

建筑规范的范围:

  • 住宅建筑
    • 单户
    • 多户建筑
      • State averages (not current code levels) and Targets for Seattle 2030 Challenge kBtu/ft2·yr.
  • Commercial buildings
    • 写字楼
    • 零售与批发
    • 酒店
    • Hospitals
    • 教学楼
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • 医院
    • Educational buildings

GBPN气候分类:

  • 供暖型
  • 1 official climate zone - heating based climate

建筑规范的类型

建筑规范的类型:

  • 样板规范、框架或实际规范:
    The City of Seattle takes the home-grown Washington code, which is updated every three years, and then adds additional local requirements to improve building performance.
  • 法条规范:
    Building design by prescriptive requirements approach.
  • 权衡:
    Building Design by Component Performance Approach.
  • 能耗声明:
    No requirement for single-family houses, However, owners of existing multi-family and non-residential buildings must disclose their energy use history to prospective buyers and tenants. There is no equivalent policy for new buildings. (Note that there are voluntary programs for rating the energy use of single-family homes that are very popular, and many home buyers insist on such ratings).
  • 样板/参考建筑:
    Building Design by Systems Approach, for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources. The proposed building's annual space heating , space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use of a standard building. For Non-residential and Multifamily Residential buildings a baseline building design shall be modeled with the same number of floors.

涉及的能源

能源要求的基础:

  • 总体性能框架:
    Partially, Building Design by Systems Approach - Energy targets are based on site energy compared with expected energy use of a standard building.
  • 终端能源:
    Site Energy
  • 寿命周期评估(隐含能源):
    Partially, some governmental buildings such as schools are required to perform life-cycle assessments.

建筑规范包括的能源消耗和功能:

  • 供暖
  • 制冷
  • 除湿
  • 通风
  • 气密性
  • 热桥
  • 热水
  • 建筑物组成部分(电梯、水泵等)
  • 技术装置
  • 照明
  • 热量回收
  • 被动式太阳能
  • 遮阳
  • 日光照明要求
  • 可再生能源 (太阳能、光伏等):
    Seattle has a requirement for a very small amount of renewable energy. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption. All new buildings and additions of more than 5,000 ft2 to existing building projects shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of 500 Btu/ft2 of gross conditioned floor area.

实施

建筑规范的实施情况:

强制性执行

实施类型:

  • 本地执行
  • 第三方检验

现场检查发生

  • 施工期间
  • 竣工后

支持规范实施的认证:

  • 锅炉检验
  • 暖通空调系统检验

不合规的惩罚:

  • Fine
  • 拒发入住许可
  • 拒发施工许可

支持实施的措施:

  • 调试要求
  • 合规前要求进行的气密性测试
  • 强制计算机建模模拟
  • 检验人员培训

新建筑值

Single Family Residential Buildings

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2652--
制冷度日 (°C)196--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.12屋顶20.12
0.28墙20.28
地面0.19地面20.19
窗户1.93窗户21.7
其他2.84--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Minimum equipment efficiency standards for each category of ventilation equipment. Specific requirements for location and insulation of ducting.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    3.1-4.2
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.40 cfm/SF @ 75 Pascals
  • 热回收
  • 暖通空调技术系统:
    暖通空调系统的性能系数是 COP apply to most systems by way of minimum efficiency SEER, EER, IEER, COP or HSPF performance values
  • 高效照明

能源绩效(性能)

130.00kwh

Non-Residential Buildings

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2652--
制冷度日 (°C)196--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.15屋顶2-
0.29墙20.32
地面0.14地面20.16
窗户1.7窗户23.41
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数0.330.33
可视传输0.510.51
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Minimum equipment efficiency standards for each category of ventilation equipment. Specific requirements for location and insulation of ducting.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    3.1-4.2
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.40 cfm/SF @ 75 Pascals
  • 热回收
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Residential Buildings (other than single-family)

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)265226522652
制冷度日 (°C)196196196
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.15屋顶2-
0.32墙20.51
地面0.16地面20.16
窗户1.82窗户22.27
其他2.84--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Minimum equipment efficiency standards for each category of ventilation equipment. Specific requirements for location and insulation of ducting.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    3.1-4.2
  • 热回收
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Non-residential

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2652--
制冷度日 (°C)196--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.15屋顶2-
0.29墙20.7
地面0.16地面20.16
窗户1.82窗户22.27
其他---
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数0.330.33
可视传输0.40.4
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Overall Thermal bridge max value:
    No linear value available
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Minimum equipment efficiency standards for each category of ventilation equipment. Specific requirements for location and insulation of ducting.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    3.1-4.2
  • Value for airtightness:
    0.40 cfm/SF @ 75 Pascals
  • 热回收
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

Residential Buildings, (other than single-family)

GBPN气候分类

供暖型

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones

0.00

中值最小最大
采暖度日 (°C)2652--
制冷度日 (°C)196--
U值 (W/m²K)
屋顶0.15屋顶2-
0.25墙20.45
地面0.16地面20.16
窗户1.82窗户22.27
其他2.84--
整体U值---
窗户1窗户2
G 值 / 太阳得热系数--
可视传输--
百分比--

其他要求设定:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • 通风,通风设备:
    Minimum equipment efficiency standards for each category of ventilation equipment. Specific requirements for location and insulation of ducting.
  • Pressure testing for ducting
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    3.1-4.2
  • 热回收
  • 暖通空调技术系统
  • 高效照明

规范历史和未来目标

设定要求的一般流程:

  • 未来目标制定提前多长时间?:
    3-5 years
  • 利益团体提前很多时间得到未来目标的通知。

零能耗目标:

  • 近零能耗/零能耗/正能耗的定义:
    Unofficial version is - A rough rule-of- thumb from those working on net-zero energy buildings in the Northwest is that net-zero energy buildings would be achieved by a combination of a 75% reduction in building energy load with the remaining 25% being provided by on-site renewable energy.-
  • 包括所有的终端用能设备
  • 准备好现实的路线图:
    No official roadmap.
  • 全国达到近零能耗目标日期:
    Target for net-zero energy new buildings by 2030, and for the City to be fully carbon-neutral by 2050.
  • 公共建筑特殊要求:
    More stringent energy efficiencyrequirements for public buildings. State agencies must rate public facilities greater than 10,000 SF and disclose benchmarking data by July 1, 2010 to the state General Administration (GA), which will make the information public. A preliminary energy audit is required for buildings with an ENERGY STAR rating less than 50. If that audit identifies cost effective energy savings, an investment grade audit is required by July 1, 2013 and cost-effective measures by 2016.
  • 链接

图表

http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Codes/Energy_Code/Overview/history.asp

较早规范数量

9

超过最低标准的现行水平(现行规范)

0

未来可能采用的规范数量

0

多重数据组:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
    0
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
    2012
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
    2003
  • 预期能耗的实际消耗
    • Relative target in percent:
      70%
  • Primary Energy Performance Frame Non-Residential :
    70%
    70% less energy used by 2015, non-residential
  • Text to explain energy types included:
    This year, Washington State is in the process of adopting a heavily-modified version of the 2012 IECC (International Energy Conservation Code), and final votes on those amendments will take place at the end of 2012.

支持措施

是否有 鼓励人们超最低要求的激励措施/奖励?

Incentive programs are provided by electric and gas utilities, helping to subsidize beyond-code measures; Evergreen Sustainable Development Standard for Affordable Housing, and Seattle City Light programs which includes the following - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs, Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program, New Construction Incentive Program, Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program.

利益相关群体参与规范制定

At both the state and City level, code development meetings are open to public involvement. New code requirements are published and we provide outreach to numerous organizations of designers, engineers, builders and developers.

在规范实施后提供给利益相关群体的培训水平?

Training is often provided via specific professional and trade organizations.

向普通大众提供合适的信息

Information about new code requirements is posted online and through newsletters and public meetings.

支持认证计划

Partially, currently no government-sponsored labeling or certification schemes. Voluntary certifications by LEED, Built Green and other third-party organizations are provided to qualifying buildings.

规范是否免费获取?

http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/codes/energy_code/overview/2009_ecupdate.asp

有关规范获取的文本

Being updated in late 2012.