Each constituent part of the UK (England Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) sets its own requirements. England and Wales first included energy conservation in building regulations in 1976, whereas Scotland and Northern Ireland introduced such regulations later, 2003 and 2006, respectively. As a member of the European Union, the United Kingdom must comply with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). England and Wales, Scotland as well as Northern Ireland are responsible for incorporating European directives at their own national levels.
Exact Start Year
Start Year Range
Revision Schedule Explanation
England and Wales plan to issue their next building regulation revisions in 2016. Scotland has created a panel in to advise on the development of a low carbon building standards strategy to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions.
|Existing Code Coverage|
Local authorities oversee compliance with building regulations and target emission rates. Third parties submit reports with calculations showing compliance.
|Compliance Checking on Design|
|Compliance Checking on Construction|
|Compliance Checking on Pre-Occupancy|
|Air Tightness testing|
|Commissioning before occupancy|
|Commissioning after occupancy|
|Compliance Software Residential|
Name of Software
EES Design SAP 2012, NHER Plan Assessor, FSAP 2012
For England and Wales, the Government and the Building Research Establishment have developed the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) methodology (for dwellings with a total floor area up to 450 m2). These methodologies include software for rating of buildings in England and Wales (not available for Scotland and Northern Ireland).
|Compliance Software Non-Residential|
Name of Software
Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) Methodology
For England and Wales, the Government and the Building Research Establishment have developed the Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) methodology (for offices and retail units through to schools, hospitals, hotels, warehouses and airport terminals, amongst many others). (Description of SAP is available here http://www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2012/SAP2012_9-92_software.pdf). These methodologies include software for rating of buildings in England and Wales (not available for Scotland and Northern Ireland).
|Penalties for non-compliance|
|Incentives and Recognition program for compliance|
Dwellings constructed to achieve net carbon emissions of zero over the year are exempt from stamp duty tax.
|Compliance Rate monitoring|
|Compliance Rate Publicised|
|Compliance Lessons Learned|
|Compliance Energy Use Statistics|
|Compliance Rate in %|
The regional governments have worked with professional bodies, trade associations and accreditation schemes to ensure a smooth implementation process. Local authority building control is a not-for-profit membership organisation that represents all local authority building control teams in England and Wales. The Zero Energy Hub provides on-line resources and guidance on implementing the UK Zero Carbon homes policies.
|Building Materials Ratings|
The UK follows European Union building material standards, CE marking. CE marking is mandatory for all building materials and covers aspects of energy performance. The EU’s Enterprise Directorate General launched a program to standardize evaluation of construction materials for their energy and environmental qualities.
Building codes in the UK reference energy performance certificates (EPCs). The UK has adopted the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) and mandated EPBD EPC requirements in line with the European standards.