The D3 is a performance-based code that requires a mandatory energy frame calculation to establish the expected monthly final energy consumption (E-luku energy weighted factor) of residential and non-residential buildings. The allowable final energy frame is set to kWh/m2/pa and depends on the type of building. The code addresses thermal envelope requirements and energy using in the calculation, including, HVAC, hot water, lighting, heat recovery and bio-climatic design.

Finland has had prescriptive energy efficiency requirements for buildings since the 1990’s. The first performance-based code is the latest 2012 code installment. The code and supporting policies encompasses dynamic aspects including, very low maximum u-values established relevant to climate, air-tightness testing, well-established EPC programs and incentive schemes, special efficiency requirements for public buildings and the implementation Passive House standards by 2015 for residential buildings.

General Information

Full Title of Code

National Building Code of Finland 2012 – Section D3 on Energy Management in Buildings

Year of Adoption


Date of Enforcement

Monday, January 2, 2012

Authority in Charge

Ministry of the Environment


Link to Relevant Web Page

Remit of Code

Geographical Coverage


Code set at:

National Level


Coverage of Building Code:

  • Residential buildings
    • One family
    • Multiple family buildings
  • Commercial buildings
    • Offices
    • Retail and wholesale
    • Hotels
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
  • Public buildings
    • Offices
    • Hospitals
    • Educational buildings
    • E-value must be calculated.

GBPN Climate Classification:

  • Heating Based
  • 4 climate zones: 1 - Cool, Dry, Marine, 2 - Cold,Dry, 3 - Very Cold, 4 - Subarctic.

Type of Building Code

Type of Building Code:

  • Model code, frame or actual code:
    National Code
  • Performance Codes for Refurbishments:
  • Performance Codes for New Builds:
    The D3 is a performance-based code that requires a mandatory energy frame calculation to establish the expected monthly final energy consumption (E-luku energy weighted factor) of residential and non-residential buildings.
  • Energy Declaration

Energy Covered

Basis for Energy Requirements:

  • Overall performance frame:
    The calculation methodology is described in the building regulations. It must be used for calculating energy consumption when issuing energy certificates for small residential buildings. When applying for a building permit or issuing energy certificates for other building types (new buildings), EN standards, other more detailed calculation methods and simulation tools can also be used.
  • Final Energy:
    E-luku energy-weighted factor - The energy label for new buildings is always based on calculated final energy consumption. The scale in the energy certificate is an absolute value (kWh/m2.year). There are ten different scales for ten different building types - Energy Report required. Annual energy consumption must be calculated using monthly calculation.

Energy Uses and Functions Covered by the Code:

  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Dehumidification
  • Ventilation
  • Airtightness
  • Thermal bridging
  • Hot water
  • Building parts (lifts, pumps etc)
  • Technical installations
  • Lighting
  • Design, position & orientation of building
  • Heat recovery
  • Passive solar
  • Passive cooling
  • Natural ventilation
  • Solar protection
  • Daylighting requirements


Enforcement Status of Code:


Type of Enforcement:

  • Local enforcement
  • Central enforcement
  • Accreditation of applicants

On-site Inspections Occur

  • During construction
  • Post completion

Certification to Support Enforcement of Code:

  • Energy Performance Certificate support BC
  • Positive labeling for building beyond the minimum BC level
  • Inspection of boilers
  • Inspection of HVAC systems

Penalties for Non-compliance:

  • None

Values for New Buildings

Residential and Non-Residential Buildings - Warm and Cooled Spaces.

GBPN Climate Classification

Heating based

Coefficient for Comparison of Climate Zones


HDD (°C)5380--
CDD (°C)101--



U-Value (W/m²K)
Overall U-Value---

Total window area should not exceed 50% of total area of external walls.

G Value/SHGC--
Visible Transmission--

Other Requirements Set for:

  • Thermal bridge demands
  • Ventilation:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Domestic Hot Water COP - Heat Pump:
    Depends on the type and size of the system.
  • Value for airtightness:
    4 m3/(h.m2) at 50 Pa
  • Heat Recovery
  • Technical HVAC systems
  • Efficient Lighting

Energy Performance


Code History and Future Targets

General Process in Setting Requirements:

  • How far in advance are future targets set?:
    2015, 2018, 2020
  • Stakeholders are informed of future targets far in advance

Zero Energy Targets:

  • All end uses are included
  • There is not a realistic roadmap in place:
    Not yet.
  • National Target date for nZEB:
    Partially -Passive house standards by 2015, 2020 EPBD obligations.
  • Special Requirements for public buildings:
    Premises of public authorities providing public services and with more than 1,000 m2 will be required to display energy certificates. This requirement was set in the new law that came into force in the beginning of March 2011.

Number of Earlier Codes


Number of Future Aspirational Codes


Is there a Zero Energy Target


Multiple set of data:

  • Levels beyond minimum:
  • Year historic or aspirational codes (planned) :
  • Baseline (actual code if nothing else):
  • Actual level of energy consumption in target
    • Relative target in percent:

Supporting Measures

Incentives/Rewards to Encourage People to go beyond Minimum Level?

The Energy Audit Programme (the EAP) is one of the oldest efficiency grant schemes. EAP started as a subsidy policy in 1992 and has operated as a full-scale programme since 2004. It is a voluntary programme promoted by a 40% to 50% subsidy on energy audits.

Involvement of Stakeholders in the Development of Codes


Level of Training Provided to Stakeholders Following Implementation of Code?


Provision of Appropriate Information for General Public


Supporting Labeling Schemes

Energy Perfromance Certificate, Green Building Council Finland, Swan.

Supporting Certification Schemes

Energy Audits, Energy Audits for Industry and service sectors, Government Decision on Energy Efficiency Measures, Repair and Energy Grants for Residential Buildings

Codes Free to Access?

Link to Other Databases


IEA's Sustainable Buildings Centre BEEP Database.